This affiliate shows how to anxiously plan an air movement to ensure able use of the aircraft afore loading. It concentrates on the chiral air amount planning adjustment but additionally discusses automation. Air amount planners charge be accomplished in chiral air amount planning techniques afore application automatic methods.
The afterward basal attempt of amount planning administer to any blazon of aircraft. Amount planning–
Many factors are advised in the amount planning process. Primarily, the amount artist charge ensure the safe and able use of the aircraft. The amount artist charge accede with aircraft safety, weight and balance, and attic amount restrictions. The amount charge be aural an adequate centermost of antithesis action for takeoff, flight, and landing. The amount artist charge additionally accede the affluence of loading and unloading. Improper planning can aftereffect in boundless loading or auction time or structural abortion in flight or on landing. A amount appropriately planned and accommodating will go on the aircraft quickly, safely, and with minimum difficulty.
Some basal considerations affect the aircraft and aircraft stability. The afterward charge be accepted afore any amount planning can begin:
Other amount planning considerations chronicle anon to the deploying unit: its mission and the accepted arrangement of operation aloft accession at destination. FM 55-12 accommodation planning considerations and responsibilities.
Aircraft loading is about categorized into two types: concentrated loading and palletized loading.
Concentrated endless are absolute ample or abundant items, such as vehicles, tanks, or architecture equipment. The absolute base area on which the burden is to be placed central the aircraft charge be computed. To appropriately abode the burden on a defined station, the burden account charge be apparent with the absolute centermost of balance. Since base computations admission into this adjustment of loading, it is additionally alleged base loading.
The absolute aircraft amount about consists of preloaded 463L pallets, appropriately anchored and accessible for flight. The centermost of anniversary bassinet is its centermost of antithesis unless the bassinet is apparent otherwise. The 463L abstemiousness abuse arrangement positions and secures the pallets in the aircraft. See Appendix D for added advice on the 463L burden system.
The assemblage amount artist charge be accustomed with the loading rules and limitations for anniversary aircraft. Accepted rules that administer to all aircraft follow:
*Another application aback planning endless for the C-130, C-141, and C-17 is that neither has a abstracted troop compartment. Therefore, aback planning troop movements, cargo-carrying accommodation is sacrificed. The burden amount restricts the cardinal of troops that can be carried. The afterward accepted rules administer to the use of sidewall seats aback planning nonpalletized burden on the C-130, C-141, and C-17:
To accept centermost of antithesis considerations, it is all-important to accept the attempt of moment. Moment is artlessly the artefact of a force (or weight) times the ambit from the advertence accomplishment line. The ambit acclimated to account a moment is the arm, which is bidding in inches. To account moment, a force (or weight) and ambit charge be known. The ambit is abstinent from some accepted point (reference point or advertence datum) to the point throughout which the force acts. Moment is absurd unless the advertence point about which the moment is afflicted is specified.
There are three items acclimated in weight and antithesis calculations: moment, weight, and arm. The accord of these items can be apparent by alignment them in a algebraic triangle (Figure 5-l).
Perhaps the simplest way to explain this is to attending at a child’s seesaw: A abundant lath is placed beyond a anchored abutment about which the lath balances (fulcrum). Aback there are two altered admeasurement accouchement benumbed the seesaw, they use their accomplishment or intuition to accomplish it accomplish properly. They do this by compensating with distance: the added adolescent sits afterpiece to the blueprint and the lighter adolescent sits added abroad from the fulcrum.
Look at Figure 5-2. A lath is altogether counterbalanced with a 30-pound weight on one end and a 60-pound weight on the other. This archetype shows that the admission of weight depends anon on its ambit from the fulcrum. For antithesis to exist, the weight charge be broadcast so the leverages or arbor furnishings are the aforementioned on anniversary ancillary of the fulcrum. Note that the ample abreast the blueprint has the aforementioned aftereffect as a lighter weight added from the fulcrum.
To prove mathematically that the alter lath is balanced, administer the blueprint in Figure 5-1 to actuate whether or not the moments activated to anniversary ancillary of the blueprint are equal.
W x A
W x A
30 x 100
60 x 50
Substituting the ethics from the aloft archetype into the blueprint shows that anniversary ancillary has a moment of 3,000, and the alter lath is altogether balanced.
If the blueprint is alien with the aforementioned alter lath and the aforementioned weights as in Archetype 1, the botheration is to actuate the area of the fulcrum, or the CB. To acquisition the fulcrum, administer the aforementioned blueprint declared in Archetype 1, but aboriginal admeasurement some distances (arm) to acquisition the adapted moment for anniversary weight. To admeasurement the distance, a specific accepted starting or advertence point is needed. These abstracts may be fabricated from any point, but in this example, the larboard end of the alter lath will be the advertence point or advertence accomplishment (Figure 5-3).
Assume the ambit for anniversary of the weights on the alter lath from the RD band abstinent 20 and 170 inches respectively. Note that the distances are abstinent from the RD to the centermost of accumulation or CB of anniversary of the weights. Application the aforementioned blueprint again, compute the moment:
Add the weights and the moments (inch-pounds) as apparent above. Now, to acquisition the ambit to the centermost of antithesis (fulcrum) in this example, bisect the absolute moment by absolute weight.
= Arm or
= 120 inches
Therefore, the centermost of antithesis (fulcrum) of this alter lath is 120 inches from the RD band (Figure 5-4).
Again to prove mathematically that anniversary ancillary of the alter lath is subjected to the aforementioned moment, and accordingly is balanced, account as follows:
120 – 20
170 – 120
W x A
W x A
30 x 100
60 x 50
Since the aforementioned moment or advantage (3,000 inch-pounds) is activated to anniversary side, the alter lath is balanced.
In some earlier publications, the appellation centermost of force or CG is broadly acclimated with aircraft endless (cargo). This appellation is the aforementioned as amount or burden centermost of balance. Since antithesis of the aircraft is mainly afflicted by weight variations forth the longitudinal arbor of the burden central the aircraft, the appellation centermost of antithesis added appropriately refers to the antithesis point of items of burden or accessories that go into the aircraft.
For accepted burden centermost of antithesis ciphering and agent centermost of antithesis computation, accredit to Appendix G of FM 55-12.
For amount centermost of antithesis computation, adjudge what goes on anniversary aircraft; again compute the absolute amount weight and antithesis to ensure that the amount is aural aircraft limits. To do this, apperceive the–
The blueprint to acquisition the amount CB is the aforementioned as declared in the antecedent two examples. To acquisition the arm, the final CB of the loaded aircraft, add all the weights and moments of the cargo. Again bisect the absolute moment by the absolute weight to get the final CB (Figure 5-l). If that CB is aural banned (CB limitation range) for that aircraft, the amount is acceptable. If the CB is not aural CB banned of the aircraft, again move or resequence some of the burden items and recalculate.
A C-141B amount with the weights and assembly stations apparent in Table 5-1 has been developed.
*The final CB of this aircraft amount is 940. The burden amount centermost of antithesis banned (floating window) is in Table 2-1. The CB banned of a C-141B with a 50,000-pound burden amount is from 880 to 950. So this amount is adequate and will not endanger the aircraft.
On best aircraft loads, cadre weight and arm charge be included in the aircraft amount computation. Cadre should be built-in all calm (rarely will all accessible seats be filled) and their CB should be ample from the assembly base abutting to the centermost of the mass.
Whenever possible, bench cadre in anon adverse seats. If cadre seats are staggered on either ancillary of the aircraft or in no accurate pattern, the CB of anniversary accumulation charge be included. The afterpiece calm cadre are built-in in the aircraft, the beneath computations charge be done to actuate the aircraft CB.
Loaded pallets do not charge a abstracted CB altitude and appearance unless they are of abnormal configuration. The loaded bassinet charge be allotment of the amount CB computation, but the assembly stations for the pallets are articular in the aircraft and forth the top of the DD Form 2130-series burden apparent forms. Pallets should not be placed on any added assembly base except those so identified.
Boxes, crates, pallets, and added almost baby items are accessible to amount into an aircraft but still crave a plan on how and area they should be placed central the aircraft. Wheeled vehicles, trailers, tracked vehicles, and added ample accessories crave abundant greater planning effort.
The development of an aircraft amount requires attention and a adeptness of the attempt of centermost of force and balance. Once these attempt are understood, aircraft endless can be calmly and bound planned afterwards complicated mathematics.
Place the centermost of antithesis of the heaviest account at the optimum CG base of the aircraft. Abode the abutting heaviest account advanced of the aboriginal item, the third account aft of the first, and so on. This is the pyramid adjustment of loading. It is acclimated to bound plan the adjustment of cartage and added abundant accessories assimilate the aircraft. One barring to this adjustment is trailers with prime movers. Keep the associated bivouac affiliated to its prime mover for affluence of unloading.
Verify the estimated plan afterwards chief the assembly base on which to abode the equipment. Application this method, calm with the templates of the aircraft plans, aircraft endless can be bound afflicted or reconfigured afterwards time-consuming figuring.
The best way to plan amount adjustment manually is to admission templates of all the cartage and accessories in the unit. Figure 5-5 shows some sample accessories templates and their adjustment on a burden manifest. See Appendix E for added advice on templates.
A ample array of burden and accessories can be transported by aircraft. Thus, a array of loading techniques is possible. The ultimate accommodation of how burden is to be loaded and positioned aboard an aircraft is an Air Force responsibility, specifically, the aircraft loadmaster. The deploying assemblage commonly does the loading, assisted as all-important by the Arrival/Departure Airfield Ascendancy Accumulation (A/DACG) cadre and equipment. However, above-mentioned planning is the key. Aircraft amount planning is the affective unit’s responsibility.
The 55-series transportability abstruse bulletins board advice on loading specific items of accessories or systems. TB 55-45 is an accurate antecedent of advice apropos aggressive accessories certified for carriage in Air Force and CRAF aircraft. It additionally helps as a advertence for air movement planning and operations at all levels of command. TB 55-46-1 and -2 (microfiche) ascertain agent ambit and weights for all Army accessories in operational and bargain (shipping) configuration. All deployment planners should accredit to these publications during assemblage deployment planning.
NOTE: In active assemblage deployments, absolute ambit and weights charge be used.
Follow the assigned procedures for loading a accurate account of equipment. If there are any problems, the loadmaster assigned to the aircraft is the final ascendancy for analytic them. Depending on the blazon of burden or accessories to be loaded, there may be added than one distinct adjustment to use. Some of the loading methods follow.
Direct Loading from Vehicles. A agent delivers burden anon to the aircraft. The agent is positioned abutting to the aircraft admission door, allowing absolute alteration of the burden from the agent to the aircraft burden compartment.
Drive-in/Drive-off Method. The agent or prime mover is apprenticed or backed beneath its own adeptness into the aircraft burden compartment. This adjustment is about the easiest for loading cartage and is additionally acclimated for cartage with towed endless and for tractor-trailer units.
Towed Loads. Certain loads, such as trailers, charge be towed or backed aboard the aircraft either by a prime mover or by manhandling. If the towed amount charcoal with the prime mover aboard the aircraft, the bivouac may or may not abide anchored to the prime mover central the aircraft. To conserve space, the bivouac may be uncoupled. In that case, the argot is
commonly bargain on the aircraft attic beneath the prime mover and placed on parking shoring.
NOTE: Take affliction to ensure that able shoring is placed beneath the argot to anticipate accident to the aircraft floor.
Pushed Loads. Some endless may be pushed aboard the aircraft either by crime or by a pusher vehicle. This adjustment is decidedly accessible in blame ample trailers aboard the aircraft because the disciplinarian can added calmly ascendancy the operation. A pusher agent charge be able with a pintle angle that is absorbed to the advanced bonanza of the vehicle. Accepted Army cartage are not able with such devices. A assemblage may accept to assemble one, application atom adamant and a salvaged pintle hook. See Appendix D for added advice on pusher vehicles.
Winched Loads. It may be all-important to winch wheeled or tracked cartage and skid-mounted or palletized burden into the aircraft burden compartment. The winching adjustment is decidedly advantageous area burden alcove clearances and admission inclines are critical. The winch is additionally acclimated to unload burden or vehicles; it provides all-important abstemiousness and ascendancy aback the burden is confused bottomward the aircraft ramp.
Airdrop and Low Altitude Parachute Extraction Arrangement (LAPES). For advice on LAPES, see FM 100-27.
Loads that Crave Materials-Handling Equipment. Several accessories are accessible to ensure accelerated loading and auction of aircraft. Common loading aids provided by the Air Force are the assorted K loaders (25K, 25K appropriate [TAC], and 40K). The 25K loader can board up to three 463L burden pallets and can backpack a best of 25,000 pounds. With advanced and rear extensions installed, the 25K TAC loader can board up to bristles 463L burden pallets and can backpack a best of 25,000 pounds off adamantine surfaces and 35,000 pounds on adamantine surfaces. The 40K can board up to bristles 463L burden pallets and can backpack a best of 40,000 pounds. All three are air- and surface-transportable. In accession to the K loaders, 6,000- and 10,000-pound accommodation forklifts supplied by the deploying assemblage or DACG/TALCE can be acclimated to handle distinct 463L pallets. See Appendix F for added advice on MHE.
There are two automatic systems accessible to the airload planner. They are the Automatic Air Amount Planning Arrangement (AALPS) and the Computer-Aided Amount Manifesting Arrangement (CALM).
AALPS is an Army-fielded automatic airload planning arrangement that supports advised planning and beheading phases of air movement as able-bodied as force architecture and analysis. It is currently fielded as a ancestor on the Sun 3/140 microcomputer. In FY 93, AALPS software will be adapted to a accouterments belvedere based on the 80386/80486 chip and the Unix operating system. In FY 94, it will interface with the Busline Coordinator-Automated Command and Ascendancy Advice Arrangement (TC-ACCIS) and become a stand-alone bore of TC-ACCIS.
AALPS applies to at atomic three levels of anatomic users: the assemblage movement administrator (UMO), the deployment planner, and the accident planner/force designer. AALPS provides “first cut” amount affairs and the adeptness to edit/modify those endless for absolute deployment. AALPS supports the deployment planner, usually the analysis busline administrator (DTO), with estimates of airlift requirements for deployment lists and produces achievement such as amount reports, clear manifests, and force cease estimates. Accident planners/force designers can actuate airlift requirements for abundant force options or bales for any commitment adjustment and configuration.
Final fielding of AALPS as a bore of TC-ACCIS is appointed for FY 94. Software may become accessible as aboriginal as FY 93. Consult the acknowledging accession busline appointment (ITO) or DTO for accepted status.
CALM is an Air Force-fielded automatic arrangement acclimated to amount plan C-130, C-141, C-5, and KC-10 aircraft. The arrangement uses alternate cartoon to advice the amount artist aftermath and complete burden manifests.
CALM is a adamantine disk-based arrangement acute a minimum of 2.5 megabytes of deejay anamnesis to abundance the absolute program. An added 2.5 megabytes of deejay accumulator amplitude is recommended to abundantly advance the capabilities of the system. CALM runs on IBM-compatible computers with a minimum of 640 kilobytes (KB) of accidental admission anamnesis (RAM), a CGA or EGA cartoon card, a adamantine disk, one 5 1/4-inch billowing deejay drive, and a accepted IBM AT keyboard with 10 action keys.
CALM software can commonly be acquired through the unit’s ITO or DTO. It commonly consists of bristles 5 1/4-inch billowing disks. An added cartoon package, Cartoon Arrangement Software (GSS) IBM accessory drivers, Volume 11, is adapted to run the CALM program. CALM versions newer than 5.0 should no best crave a abstracted GSS disciplinarian arrangement because of altered cartoon software technology.
Refer to AF Chiral 28-346, Volume I/II, the end user chiral for CALM, for added information. The Air Force Field Assistance Branch for CALM may be contacted at DSN 596-5771 or bartering (205) 416-5771.
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